The high carbon steel (tamahagane) and higher carbon pig iron, called nabe-gane, will then be forged in alternating layers, using very intricate methods to form the very hard steel for the edge, called hagane (edge steel), and the springy metal jacket, called kawagane (skin steel).
The most useful process is the folding, where the metals are forge welded, folded, and welded again, as many as 16 times.
The folding removes impurities and helps even out the carbon content, while the alternating layers combine hardness with ductility to greatly enhance the toughness.
This will be layered in with more charcoal and more iron sand over the next 72 hours.
Four or five people need to constantly work on this process.
It takes about a week to build the tatara and complete the iron conversion to steel.
Because the charcoal cannot exceed the melting point of iron, the steel is not able to become fully molten, and this allows both high and low carbon material to be created and separated once cooled.
When complete, the Tatara is broken to remove the steel bloom, known as a kera.
At the end of the process the tatara will have consumed about 10 short tons (9.1 t) of satetsu and 12 short tons (11 t) of charcoal leaving about 2.5 short tons (2.3 t) of kera, from which less than a ton of tamahagane can be produced.
The swordsmiths will carefully break the kera apart, and separate the various carbon steels.
The lowest carbon steel is called hocho-tetsu (soft iron), which is used for the shingane (translated as "core-steel") of the blade.
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including katana, wakizashi, tantō, yari, naginata, nagamaki, tachi, uchigatana, nodachi, ōdachi, kodachi, and ya (arrow).