Geoffrey of Monmouth, writing around 1130 with History of the Kings of Britain, introduced the first literary creation of the character, King Arthur. Chretien de Troyes built and expanded on this base.
Geoffrey of Monmouth wrote about the conception and birth of Arthur at Tintagel and Arthur's marriage to Guinevere (he calls her Ganhumara). Chretien de Troyes is the man that created Camelot, Lancelot, and the Holy Grail.
One story is that In the 1190's Hugh De Morville of Cumberland & Westmorland is said to have the story of Arthur to the Continent when he replaced King Richard of England as a hostage of the Austrians.
This work influenced Ulrich Von Zatzighoven who in turn influenced Chretien De Troyes Chretien de Troyes translated Ovid's Art of Love and a version of the Tristan legend. The court of Arthur is portrayed as a romantic, chivilrous place.
He then turned to the Arthurian theme with Erec, about an Arthurian knight who is put to various trials to claim the love of Enide. The next romance by Chretien de Troyes is Cliges, which again takes place round Arthur's court. But Fenice marries Clige's uncle, the emperor of Constantinople.
Magic potions with various powers pepper the story. Yvain kills the knight of the fountain, then falls in love with Laudine, the widow of the knight.
This medieval French romance is the oldest surviving work about Lancelot.
When Queen Guinevere is abducted by Meleagrant, Lancelot must face many trials, physical, emotional, and social, to rescue her. Originally written in Old French, sometime in the second half of the 12th Century A. SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY: ORIGINAL TEXT Carroll, Carleton W.FOUR ARTHURIAN ROMANCES:"EREC ET ENIDE", "CLIGES", "YVAIN", AND "LANCELOT" by Chretien De Troyes Fl. (Ed.): "Chretien De Troyes: Erec and Enide" (Garland Library of Medieval Literature, New York & London, 1987).Edited with a translation (see Penguin Classics edition below). (Ed.): "Chretien De Troyes: The Knight with the Lion, or Yvain (Garland Library of Medieval Literature 48A, New York & London, 1985).Original text with English translation (See Penguin Classics edition below). (Ed.): "Chretien De Troyes: Lancelot, or The Knight of the Cart (Garland Library of Medieval Literature 1A, New York & London, 1981).Original text with English translation (See Penguin Classics edition below). Micha, Alexandre (Ed.): "Les Romans de Chretien de Troyes, Vol.