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Similarly, countries designated as Western Europe are often not homogenous in many realms (political, economic, etc.), especially not over the course of a millennium.

To say that the Barbary corsair raids against European and American shipping are ancestors to the contemporary War on Terror would be a misconception and an overemphasis on an aspect of identity.

Muslims from one era obviously will not have everything in common with Muslims of another era, including certain religious values, especially regarding political goals.

Since the majority of the timeline revolves around Middle Eastern Muslims in Western Europe, the timeline uses the term 'Muslims' instead of 'Islam' to emphasize the persons and cultural contacts. Introduction Both the designations Muslim and Western Europe frequently prove to be very loose definitions that serve to divide and create exclusivist tensions that are historically exaggerated. West, etc.; all being both useful and useless in their own way.

Converts, corsairs, renegades and rebels (14th-20th centuries)19. The image that results from such a survey builds a rich and somewhat colorful scheme of a forgotten shared history, that of 14 centuries of exchanges and mutual enrichment between two major civilisations of the ancient and modern world.

This paper mill was one of the first to produce paper in Europe since 1276, after it was introduced by direct contact with the Muslim world (source).

References Figure 1: Remains of Fabriano (Italy) paper mill where handmade paper is still produced.

The following timeline presents a survey of Muslim presence in Europe from the 7th century CE until the 20th century. Muslims in the Iberian peninsula after Granada's fall7. Although the subject of this timeline revolves around some kind of Muslim identity within the history of Western Europe, the intention is to exhibit a continuity of history between the Muslim world and Western Civilization when often their histories are seen as mutually exclusive.

It lists the various and different contacts that shaped the relations of Muslims with Western Europe. Early Excursions into Sicily and Other Mediterranean Islands8. This work does not claim to be a sum total of all the significant events regarding Muslims in Western Europe; it is limited in its exclusive use of English sources.

The following timeline [1] presents a survey of Muslim presence in Europe from the 7th century CE until the 20th century. Its intended use is a somewhat comprehensive starting point and leisure reference regarding the subject.

It lists the various and different contacts that shaped the relations of Muslims with Western Europe and gave rise to perceptions and labels of Muslims in the West during several centuries. The time period dealt with is the 600s CE to 1900s.

These relations were various, religious, military, diplomatic, through trade and commerce, by intellectual exchanges in different domains. Just a listing of books printed within this period in Western Europe regarding Islam and its followers would take up numerous more pages.

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