Emil Schürer writes: "Enoch (in common with Elijah) occupies this singular position among the Old Testament men of God, that when removed from the earth he was carried directly to heaven. 55-56) James Charlesworth writes: "This pseudepigraph has evoked divergent opinions; but today there is a consensus that the book is a composite, portions of which are clearly pre-Christian as demonstrated by the discovery of Aramaic and Hebrew fragments from four of the five sections of the book among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Section IV runs along lines laid down in the first two portions dealing with the problem of sin and suffering of Israel.
As is well known, it is quoted in the Epistle of Jude (14, 15), while many of the Fathers use it without hesitation as the genuine production of Enoch, and as containing authentic divine revelations, although it has never been officially recognized by the Church as canonical. A German translation was issued by Hoffmann which, from chap. The Ethiopic text was published first by Laurence in 1838, and subsequently by Dillmann in 1851, after having collated it with five manuscripts. Section V is without any account of the origin of sin but seems to be mainly devoted to the problem of suffering of the righteous and the prosperity of the oppressing sinners.
We still find the Byzantine chronicler, George Syncellus (about 800 A. Dillmann likewise issued (1853) a new German translation, in which there were material emendations, and on which all disquisitions connected with this book have been based ever since. It denounces evil and utters woes on sinners and promises blessings to the righteous.
It seemed as though there were reason to hope that more light would be thrown upon this book when a small fragment of it in Greek (extending from ver. Within Section V is an older work "The Apocalypse of Weeks" (93:1-10; -19).
For, from what was stated by Mai, one was led to suppose that there was still far more in the codex than had yet been published. a fresh examination by Gebhardt revealed the fact that the deciphered fragment was all of the Book of Enoch that it contained (Merx Archiv, vol. 243)." (The Literature of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus, pp. Section III (72-87) is primarily concerned with furnishing a treatise on astronomy, the secrets of the movement of the stars as revealed to Enoch, who sees with his own eyes their very course, even the portals through which they enter and issue forth, for the purpose of transmitting the information to future generations.
The indications are that these parts of 1 Enoch, together with a work known as the book of Giants, circulated at Qumran as separate writings and were also copied out in combinationwith the book of Giants apparently as the second of the four elementsto form a four-part corpus of Enochic writings, a tetrateuch.
On the other hand, the fragments from the other four manuscripts belong to a book of Astronomy which at Qumran circulated separately from the other Enochic writings; the third section of the Ethiopic book (chapters 72-82) is based on the Qumran book of Astronomy, but is much shorter and differs quite substantially.
No fragments were discovered corresponding to the second section of the Ethiopic book (chapters 37-71), the Parables." (Outside the Old Testament, p. Vander Kam writes of 1 Enoch 72-82: "The Astronomical Book (AB) was written in the Aramaic language, as we now know from the four copies of it found among the Dead Sea Scrolls (4Q208-11).
From Aramaic it was translated into Greek (there are only a few small remnants that have survived) and from Greek into Ethiopic. Milik thinks it is alluded to by the Hellenistic Jewish historian Eupolemus in a work completed 158 B. The Book of Jubilees, however, may have been composed later in the second century B.
755) has shown that this section, which is not represented among the early fragments, is probably a later addition to 1 Enoch; but his contention that it was composed around A. Section II (37-71) has three "parables," or apocalyptic revelations, together with the story of Enoch's translation into heaven.
Section I (1-36) is mainly concerned with pronouncing God's judgment by Enoch on the angels, or watchers who fell through their love for the daughters of men (Gen. A weird description of Hades is found in this portion of 1 Enoch.
C., chapters 37-71 could have been added in the first century B. 142-143): The book was arranged by its last editor in five sections, as in the Psalms and other Jewish Books.