is the intentional use of physical force with the potential for causing death, injury, or harm. Physical violence includes, but is not limited to scratching, pushing, shoving, throwing, grabbing, biting, choking, shaking, poking, hair pulling, slapping, punching, hitting, burning, and use of restraints or one's body, size, or strength against another person.
is abuse, often verbal, which is intended to control another individual through degradation, humiliation, and fear.
This abuse may include threats of harm, physical and social isolation, intimidation and harassment, false accusations and blaming, ignoring or ridiculing needs, name-calling and constant criticism and insults (Brygger, M., Matricciani, R., Tulonen, J., & Campbell, J., 1995).
Violence is a public health issue as perilous as any microbial disease. Providing effective interventions for African American battered women: Afrocentric perspectives.
It has been recognized by the World Health Organization as a public health priority worldwide. Domestic violence alone affects a significant proportion of the U. population either as direct victims or as witnesses of abuse directed toward spouses or intimate partners, children, and elders.
The reduction of violence is targeted as one of the major goals of the U. Child maltreatment affects nearly three million children annually and results in the death of more than three children every day (Mc Curdy & Daro, 1994).
Between two and four million women are physically battered each year by partners or former partners (Public Health Service, 1991). adult population reports having witnessed a man beating his wife or girlfriend (CDC Office of Women's Health, 1998).
The mistreatment of elders is estimated to afflict between 700,000 and 1.1 million individuals annually (ANA, 1998). In addition to immediate physical, emotional and/or psychological injury, the sequelae of such abuse is often serious and life-long.
Long-term effects may include permanent disabilities resulting from physical damage, sexually transmitted diseases including HIV, and complications of pregnancy and birth including low birth weight babies.
Position Statement: Because of the prevalence of physical and psychological violence in our society, nurses frequently care for the victims, the perpetrators, and the witnesses of physical and psychological violence.
In addition, nurses also may be at risk for experiencing violence in the workplace.
As members of the largest group of health care providers, nurses should be aware of assessment methods and nursing interventions that will interrupt and prevent the cycle of violence.